Wilderness Therapy/Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare

Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Council

Education/Skill Acquisition

Professional Organizations
(Clinicians & Therapists)
Council on Social Work Education
Association of Social Work Boards
American Clinical Social Work Association
National Association of Social Workers
(Field Leaders & Guides)
National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification
American Therapeutic Recreation Association

Adventure Works
Anasazi Foundation
Blue Fire Wilderness Therapy
Blue Ridge Therapeutic Wilderness
Elements Wilderness
Equinox Counseling
Evoke Therapy
Legacy Outdoor Adventures
New Vision Wilderness
Open Sky
Outward Bound
Pure Life
Redcliff Ascent
Second Nature Family Therapy
Summit Achievement
SUWS of the Carolinas
The Mountain Center

Becker, S. P. (2010). Wilderness Therapy: Ethical Considerations for Mental Health Professionals. Child & Youth Care Forum, 39(1), 47–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-009-9085-7

Bettmann, J. E., Gillis, H. L., Speelman, E. A., Parry, K. J., & Case, J. M. (2016). A Meta-analysis of Wilderness Therapy Outcomes for Private Pay Clients. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(9), 2659–2673. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0439-0

Bettmann, J. E., Tucker, A., Behrens, E., & Vanderloo, M. (2017). Changes in Late Adolescents and Young Adults’ Attachment, Separation, and Mental Health During Wilderness Therapy. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(2), 511–522. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0577-4

Bolt, K. L. (2016). Descending from the Summit: Aftercare Planning for Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy. Contemporary Family Therapy, 38(1), 62–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10591-016-9375-9

Bowen, D. J., Neill, J. T., & Crisp, S. J. R. (2016). Wilderness adventure therapy effects on the mental health of youth participants. Evaluation and Program Planning, 58, 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2016.05.005

Buchecker, M., & Degenhardt, B. (2015). The effects of urban inhabitants’ nearby outdoor recreation on their well-being and their psychological resilience. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 10, 55–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2015.06.007

Caddick, N., Smith, B., & Phoenix, C. (2015). The Effects of Surfing and the Natural Environment on the Well-Being of Combat Veterans. Qualitative Health Research, 25(1), 76–86. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732314549477

Caldas, S. V., Broaddus, E. T., & Winch, P. J. (2016). Measuring conflict management, emotional self-efficacy, and problem solving confidence in an evaluation of outdoor programs for inner-city youth in Baltimore, Maryland. Evaluation and Program Planning, 57, 64–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2016.04.003

Chang, Y., Davidson, C., Conklin, S., & Ewert, A. (2019). The impact of short-term adventure-based outdoor programs on college students’ stress reduction. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 19(1), 67–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/14729679.2018.1507831

Coll, PhD, K. M., Sass, EdD, M., Freeman, PhD, B. J., Thobro, MS, P., & Hauser, MSW, N. (2017). The value of therapeutic outdoor programs with adolescents in a rural residential treatment center: A pilot study. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 12(4), 25. https://doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2013.0055

Cordle, J., Van Puymbroeck, M., Hawkins, B., & Baldwin, PhD, E. (2016). The Effects of Utilizing High Element Ropes Courses as a Treatment Intervention on Self-Efficacy. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 50(1). https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2016-V50-I1-6439

Daniels, E., Cottingham, M., Walsh, D. W., & Pearson, D. (2017). An Evaluation of University Recreation Center Outdoor Programs for People With Disabilities: Perspectives From Professionals. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 9(1), 83–97. https://doi.org/10.18666/JOREL-2017-V9-I1-7451

Dobud, W. W., & Harper, N. J. (2018). Of Dodo birds and common factors: A scoping review of direct comparison trials in adventure therapy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 31, 16–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.01.005

Dorsch, T., Richards, K. A. R., Swain, J., & Maxey, M. (2016). The Effect of an Outdoor Recreation Program on Individuals With Disabilities and their Family Members: A Case Study. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 50(2), 155–172. https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2016-V50-I2-6527

Dustin, D., Bricker, N., Arave, J., Dustin, D. L., Arave, J., Wall, W., & Wendt, G. (2011). The Promise of River Running as a Therapeutic Medium for Veterans Coping with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. In Therapeutic Recreation Journal.

Duvall, J., & Kaplan, R. (2014). Enhancing the well-being of veterans using extended group-based nature recreation experiences. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 51(5), 685–696. https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2013.08.0190

Ewert, A., Davidson, C., & Chang, Y. (2016). The Body Doesn’t Lie. Journal of Leisure Research, 48(4), 327–337. https://doi.org/10.18666/JLR-2016-V48-I4-6807

Fernee, C. R., Gabrielsen, L. E., Andersen, A. J. W., & Mesel, T. (2017). Unpacking the Black Box of Wilderness Therapy. Qualitative Health Research, 27(1), 114–129. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316655776

Fernee, C. R., Mesel, T., Andersen, A. J. W., & Gabrielsen, L. E. (2019). Therapy the Natural Way: A Realist Exploration of the Wilderness Therapy Treatment Process in Adolescent Mental Health Care in Norway. Qualitative Health Research, 29(9), 1358–1377. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732318816301

Gabrielsen, L. E., Fernee, C. R., Aasen, G. O., & Eskedal, L. T. (2016). Why Randomized Trials Are Challenging Within Adventure Therapy Research. Journal of Experiential Education, 39(1), 5–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053825915607535

Gabrielsen, L. E., Harper, N. J., & Fernee, C. R. (2019). What are constructive anxiety levels in wilderness therapy? An exploratory pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 37(August), 51–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2019.08.007

Gillis, H. L., Speelman, E., Linville, N., Bailey, E., Kalle, A., Oglesbee, N., … Jensen, J. (2016). Meta-analysis of Treatment Outcomes Measured by the Y-OQ and Y-OQ-SR Comparing Wilderness and Non-wilderness Treatment Programs. Child & Youth Care Forum, 45(6), 851–863. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-016-9360-3

Harper, N. J., Mott, A. J., & Obee, P. (2019). Client perspectives on wilderness therapy as a component of adolescent residential treatment for problematic substance use and mental health issues. Children and Youth Services Review, 105(August), 104450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.104450

Hawkins, B. L., Townsend, J. A., & Garst, B. A. (2016). Nature-Based Recreational Therapy for Military Service Members: A Strengths Approach. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 50(1), 55–74. https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2016-V50-I1-6793

Hoag, M. J., Massey, K. E., & Roberts, S. D. (2014). Dissecting the Wilderness Therapy Client. Journal of Experiential Education, 37(4), 382–396. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053825914540837

Jong, M. C., Lown, A., Schats, W., Otto, H. R., & Jong, M. (2019). Mapping the concept, content and outcome of wilderness therapy for childhood cancer survivors: protocol for a scoping review. BMJ Open, 9(8), e030544. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030544

Lundberg, N., Taniguchi, S., McGovern, R., & Smith, S. (2016). Female veterans’ involvement in outdoor sports and recreation: A theoretical sample of recreation opportunity structures. Journal of Leisure Research, 48(5), 413–430. https://doi.org/10.18666/JLR-2016-V48-I5-6897

Magle-Haberek, N. A., Tucker, A. R., & Gass, M. A. (2012). Effects of Program Differences With Wilderness Therapy and Residential Treatment Center (RTC) Programs. Residential Treatment For Children & Youth, 29(3), 202–218. https://doi.org/10.1080/0886571X.2012.697433

Picton, C., Fernandez, R., Moxham, L., & Patterson, C. (2019). Experiences of outdoor nature-based therapeutic recreation programs for persons with a mental illness. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 17(12), 2517–2524. https://doi.org/10.11124/JBISRIR-D-19-00046

Poulsen, D. V., Stigsdotter, U. K., Djernis, D., & Sidenius, U. (2016). ‘Everything just seems much more right in nature’: How veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder experience nature-based activities in a forest therapy garden. Health Psychology Open, 3(1), 205510291663709. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055102916637090

Steele, E., Wood, D. S., J Usadi, E., & Applegarth, D. M. (2018). TRR’s Warrior Camp: An Intensive Treatment Program for Combat Trauma in Active Military and Veterans of All Eras. Military Medicine, 183(suppl_1), 403–407. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usx153

Rogers, S. D., Loy, D., & Brown-Bochicchio, C. (2016). Sharing a New Foxhole With Friends: The Impact of Outdoor Recreation on Injured Military. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 50(3), 213–227. https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2016-V50-I3-2837

Romagosa, F., Eagles, P. F. J., & Lemieux, C. J. (2015). From the inside out to the outside in: Exploring the role of parks and protected areas as providers of human health and well-being. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 10, 70–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2015.06.009

Russell, M. S., Widmer, M. A., Lundberg, N., & Ward, P. (2015). Adaptation of an Adolescent Coping Assessment for Outdoor Adventure. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 49(1), 18–34. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.libproxy.clemson.edu/docview/1672175056?accountid=6167

Russell, K., & Gillis, H. L. (Lee). (2017). The Adventure Therapy Experience Scale: The Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure the Unique Factors Moderating an Adventure Therapy Experience. Journal of Experiential Education, 40(2), 135–152. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053825917690541

Tucker, A., Norton, C. L., DeMille, S. M., & Hobson, J. (2016). The Impact of Wilderness Therapy. Journal of Experiential Education, 39(1), 15–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053825915607536

Tucker, A. R. (2009). Adventure-based group therapy to promote social skills in adolescents. Social Work with Groups, 32(4), 315–329. https://doi.org/10.1080/01609510902874594

Tucker, A. R., Combs, K. M., Bettmann, J. E., Chang, T.-H., Graham, S., Hoag, M., & Tatum, C. (2018). Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Transported to Wilderness Therapy Programs. Research on Social Work Practice, 28(4), 438–451. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731516647486

Tucker, A. R., Javorski, S., Tracy, J., & Beale, B. (2013). The Use of Adventure Therapy in Community-Based Mental Health: Decreases in Problem Severity Among Youth Clients. Child & Youth Care Forum, 42(2), 155–179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-012-9190-x

Tucker, A. R., Norton, C. L., Itin, C., Hobson, J., & Alvarez, M. A. (2016). Adventure Therapy: Nondeliberative Group Work in Action. Social Work with Groups, 39(2–3), 194–207. https://doi.org/10.1080/01609513.2015.1048416

Tucker, A. R., Widmer, M. A., Faddis, T., Randolph, B., & Gass, M. (2016). Family Therapy in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: Current Practices and Future Possibilities. Contemporary Family Therapy, 38(1), 32–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10591-015-9370-6

Van Puymbroeck, M., Ewert, A. W., Luo, Y., & Frankel, J. (2012). The influence of the Outward Bound Veterans Program on sense of coherence. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 11(3), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2012.0025

Vankanegan, C., Tucker, A. R., Mcmillion, P., Gass, M., & Spencer, L. (2019). Adventure therapy and its impact on the functioning of youth in a community setting. Social Work with Groups, 42(2), 127–141. https://doi.org/10.1080/01609513.2018.1478761

Wilson, J. F., & Christensen, K. M. (2012). The Relationship Between Outdoor Recreation and Depression Among Individuals With Disabilities. Journal of Leisure Research, 44(4), 486–506. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2012.11950275

Woodford, K. M., Fenton, L., & Connors, J. (2017). A Change of Scenery: Wilderness Therapy Treatment for Inpatients in Acute Care. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 51(4), 258–273. https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2017-V51-I4-7374