American Tai Chi & Qigong Association
International Wushu Foundation
Disabled Sports USA

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Burschka, J. M., Keune, P. M., Oy, U. H., Oschmann, P., & Kuhn, P. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions in multiple sclerosis: beneficial effects of Tai Chi on balance, coordination, fatigue and depression. BMC Neurology, 14(1), 165. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-014-0165-4

Ding, M. (2012). Tai Chi for Stroke Rehabilitation. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 91(12), 1091–1096. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0b013e31826edd21

Ho, R. T. H., Au Yeung, F. S. W., Lo, P. H. Y., Law, K. Y., Wong, K. O. K., Cheung, I. K. M., & Ng, S. M. (2012). Tai-Chi for Residential Patients with Schizophrenia on Movement Coordination, Negative Symptoms, and Functioning: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/923925

Hwang, I., Song, R., Ahn, S., Lee, M., Wayne, P. M., & Sohn, M. K. (2017). Exploring the Adaptability of Tai Chi to Stroke Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Nursing, 00(0), 1. https://doi.org/10.1097/rnj.0000000000000110

Irwin, M. R., Olmstead, R., Carrillo, C., Sadeghi, N., Breen, E. C., Witarama, T., … Nicassio, P. (2014). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Tai Chi for Late Life Insomnia and Inflammatory Risk: A Randomized Controlled Comparative Efficacy Trial. Sleep, 37(9), 1543–1552. https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4008

Jia, X., Jiang, C., Tao, J., Li, Y., Zhou, Y., & Chen, L. (2018). Effects of core strength training combined with Tai Chi Chuan for the musculoskeletal system and cardiopulmonary function in older adults. Medicine, 97(35), e12024. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012024

Jimenez, P. J., Melendez, A., & Albers, U. (2012). Psychological effects of Tai Chi Chuan. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 55(2), 460–467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2012.02.003

Lavretsky, H., Alstein, L. L., Olmstead, R. E., Ercoli, L. M., Riparetti-Brown, M., St. Cyr, N., & Irwin, M. R. (2011). Complementary Use of Tai Chi Chih Augments Escitalopram Treatment of Geriatric Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(10), 839–850. https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e31820ee9ef

Lee, M. S., Pittler, M. H., Shin, B.-C., & Ernst, E. (2008). Tai chi for osteoporosis: a systematic review. Osteoporosis International, 19(2), 139–146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-007-0486-x

Li, F., Harmer, P., Fitzgerald, K., Eckstrom, E., Stock, R., Galver, J., … Batya, S. S. (2012). Tai Chi and Postural Stability in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(6), 511–519. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1107911

Li, J., Shen, J., Wu, G., Tan, Y., Sun, Y., Keller, E., … Wu, J. (2018). Mindful exercise versus non-mindful exercise for schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 32(6), 17–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.04.003

Li, Y., Su, Q., Guo, H., Wu, H., Du, H., Yang, G., … Niu, K. (2014). Long-term Tai Chi training is related to depressive symptoms among Tai Chi practitioners. Journal of Affective Disorders, 169, 36–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.07.029

Liu, X., Clark, J., Siskind, D., Williams, G. M., Byrne, G., Yang, J. L., & Doi, S. A. (2015). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of Qigong and Tai Chi for depressive symptoms. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 23(4), 516–534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2015.05.001

Lomas-Vega, R., Obrero-Gaitán, E., Molina-Ortega, F. J., & Del-Pino-Casado, R. (2017). Tai Chi for Risk of Falls. A Meta-analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 65(9), 2037–2043. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15008

Manor, B., Lough, M., Gagnon, M. M., Cupples, A., Wayne, P. M., & Lipsitz, L. A. (2014). Functional Benefits of Tai Chi Training in Senior Housing Facilities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(8), 1484–1489. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.12946

Mehrsafar, A. H., Strahler, J., Gazerani, P., Khabiri, M., Sánchez, J. C. J., Moosakhani, A., & Zadeh, A. M. (2019). The effects of mindfulness training on competition-induced anxiety and salivary stress markers in elite Wushu athletes: A pilot study. Physiology & Behavior, 210(August), 112655. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112655

Niles, B. L., Mori, D. L., Polizzi, C. P., Pless Kaiser, A., Ledoux, A. M., & Wang, C. (2016). Feasibility, qualitative findings and satisfaction of a brief Tai Chi mind–body programme for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms. BMJ Open, 6(11), e012464. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012464

Qi, Y., Zhang, X., Zhao, Y., Xie, H., Shen, X., Niu, W., & Wang, Y. (2018). The effect of wheelchair Tai Chi on balance control and quality of life among survivors of spinal cord injuries: A randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 33(1239), 7–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.07.004

Si, Y., Wang, C., Zheng, J., Guo, Y., Xu, G., & Ma, Y. (2019). Tai Chi exercise for sleep problems in older adults. Medicine, 98(45), e17556. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017556

Solloway, M. R., Taylor, S. L., Shekelle, P. G., Miake-Lye, I. M., Beroes, J. M., Shanman, R. M., & Hempel, S. (2016). An evidence map of the effect of Tai Chi on health outcomes. Systematic Reviews, 5(1), 126. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-016-0300-y

Song, R., Grabowska, W., Park, M., Osypiuk, K., Vergara-Diaz, G. P., Bonato, P., … Wayne, P. M. (2017). The impact of Tai Chi and Qigong mind-body exercises on motor and non-motor function and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 41, 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.05.019

Tong, Y., Chai, L., Lei, S., Liu, M., & Yang, L. (2018). Effects of Tai Chi on Self-Efficacy: A Systematic Review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1701372

Tsai, P.-F., Kitch, S., Chang, J. Y., James, G. A., Dubbert, P., Roca, J. V., & Powers, C. H. (2018). Tai Chi for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Pilot Study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 36(2), 147–158. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898010117697617

Voukelatos, A., Cumming, R. G., Lord, S. R., & Rissel, C. (2007). A Randomized, Controlled Trial of tai chi for the Prevention of Falls: The Central Sydney tai chi Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(8), 1185–1191. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01244.x

Waechter, R. L., & Wekerle, C. (2015). Promoting Resilience Among Maltreated Youth Using Meditation, Yoga, Tai Chi and Qigong: A Scoping Review of the Literature. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 32(1), 17–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-014-0356-2

Walther, A., Lacker, T. J., & Ehlert, U. (2018). Everybody was Kung-Fu fighting—The beneficial effects of Tai Chi Qigong and self-defense Kung-Fu training on psychological and endocrine health in middle aged and older men. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 36(December 2017), 68–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2017.11.021

Wang, C., Bannuru, R., Ramel, J., Kupelnick, B., Scott, T., & Schmid, C. H. (2010). Tai Chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10(1), 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-10-23

Wang, C., Schmid, C. H., Fielding, R. A., Harvey, W. F., Reid, K. F., Price, L. L., … McAlindon, T. (2018). Effect of tai chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 360, k851. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k851

Wang, C., Schmid, C. H., Iversen, M. D., Harvey, W. F., Fielding, R. A., Driban, J. B., … McAlindon, T. (2016). Comparative Effectiveness of Tai Chi Versus Physical Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 165(2), 77. https://doi.org/10.7326/M15-2143

Wang, J., Feng, B., Yang, X., Liu, W., Teng, F., Li, S., & Xiong, X. (2013). Tai Chi for Essential Hypertension. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/215254

Wang, Y. T., Li, Z., Yang, Y., Zhong, Y., Lee, S.-Y., Chen, S., & Chen, Y. (2016). Effects of wheelchair Tai Chi on physical and mental health among elderly with disability. Research in Sports Medicine, 24(3), 157–170. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2016.1191487

Wayne, P. M., Walsh, J. N., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Wells, R. E., Papp, K. V., Donovan, N. J., & Yeh, G. Y. (2014). Effect of Tai Chi on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(1), 25–39. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.12611

Yang, F., Lyu, D., Yan, R., Wang, Y., Li, Z., Zou, Y., & Zhang, Y. (2018). Effect of Tai Chi for post-stroke mental disorders and sleep disorders. Medicine, 97(39), e12554. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012554

Yang, G.-Y., Wang, L.-Q., Ren, J., Zhang, Y., Li, M.-L., Zhu, Y.-T., … Liu, J.-P. (2015). Evidence Base of Clinical Studies on Tai Chi: A Bibliometric Analysis. PLOS ONE, 10(3), e0120655. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120655

Zeng, Y., Luo, T., Xie, H., Huang, M., & Cheng, A. S. K. (2014). Health benefits of qigong or tai chi for cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 22(1), 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2013.11.010

Zheng, G., Liu, F., Li, S., Huang, M., Tao, J., & Chen, L. (2015). Tai Chi and the Protection of Cognitive Ability. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(1), 89–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.01.002

Zheng, S., Lal, S., Meier, P., Sibbritt, D., & Zaslawski, C. (2014). Protocol: The Effect of 12 Weeks of Tai Chi Practice on Anxiety in Healthy but Stressed People Compared to Exercise and Wait-list Comparison Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, 7(3), 159–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jams.2014.01.003

Zhong, D., Xiao, Q., He, M., Li, Y., Ye, J., Zheng, H., … Jin, R. (2019). Tai Chi for improving balance and reducing falls. Medicine, 98(17), e15225. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015225

Zhou, M., Liao, H., Sreepada, L. P., Ladner, J. R., Balschi, J. A., & Lin, A. P. (2018). Tai Chi Improves Brain Metabolism and Muscle Energetics in Older Adults. Journal of Neuroimaging, 28(4), 359–364. https://doi.org/10.1111/jon.12515

Zhu, S., Shi, K., Yan, J., He, Z., Wang, Y., Yi, Q., & Huang, H. (2018). A modified 6-form Tai Chi for patients with COPD. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 39(May), 36–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2018.05.007

Zou, L., Wang, H., Xiao, Z., Fang, Q., Zhang, M., Li, T., … Liu, Y. (2017). Tai chi for health benefits in patients with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. PLOS ONE, 12(2), e0170212. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170212