Martial Arts

US Judo Association
Disabled Sports USA
Team USA

World Karate Federation
Disabled Sports USA
Team USA

World Taekwondo Federation
Disabled Sports USA
Team USA

Bahrami, F., Movahedi, A., Marandi, S. M., & Sorensen, C. (2016). The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(3), 978–986.

Carter, K., & Horvat, M. (2016). Effect of Taekwondo Training on Lower Body Strength and Balance in Young Adults with Down Syndrome. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 13(2), 165–172.

Chateau-Degat, M.-L. (2010). Effect of adapted karate training on quality of life and body balance in 50-year-old men. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 143.

Conant, K. D., Morgan, A. K., Muzykewicz, D., Clark, D. C., & Thiele, E. A. (2008). A karate program for improving self-concept and quality of life in childhood epilepsy: Results of a pilot study. Epilepsy & Behavior, 12(1), 61–65.

Douris, P. C., Elokda, A. S., Handrakis, J. P., Principal, S., Rondo, E., Bovell, J., … Zimmerman, T. (2009). Martial Art Training Enhances the Glutathione Antioxidant System in Middle-Aged Adults. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(5), 1518–1523.

Douris, P. C., Ingenito, T., Piccirillo, B., Herbst, M., Petrizzo, J., Cherian, V., … Jung, M. K. (2013). Martial arts training attenuates arterial stiffness in middle aged adults. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(3), 201–207.

Fong, S. S. M., Chung, J. W. Y., Chow, L. P. Y., Ma, A. W. W., & Tsang, W. W. N. (2013). Differential effect of Taekwondo training on knee muscle strength and reactive and static balance control in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(5), 1446–1455.

Fong, S. S. M., Liu, K. P. Y., Fong, D. Y. T., Yuen, L., & Guo, X. (2017). Adapted taekwondo training for skeletal development and motor proficiency in prepubertal children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 390, S31.

Fong, S. S. M., Tsang, W. W. N., & Ng, G. Y. F. (2012). Taekwondo training improves sensory organization and balance control in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(1), 85–95.

Gubbels, J., van der Stouwe, T., Spruit, A., & Stams, G. J. J. M. (2016). Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles: A meta-analytic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 28, 73–81.

Harwood, A., Lavidor, M., & Rassovsky, Y. (2017). Reducing aggression with martial arts: A meta-analysis of child and youth studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 34, 96–101.

Jansen, P., & Dahmen-Zimmer, K. (2012). Effects of Cognitive, Motor, and Karate Training on Cognitive Functioning and Emotional Well-Being of Elderly People. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(FEB), 1–7.

Jansen, P., Dahmen-Zimmer, K., Kudielka, B. M., & Schulz, A. (2017). Effects of Karate Training Versus Mindfulness Training on Emotional Well-Being and Cognitive Performance in Later Life. Research on Aging, 39(10), 1118–1144.

Jung, H. C., & Song, J. K. (2018). Decreased abdominal fat and improved bone metabolism after taekwondo training in obese adolescents. Kinesiology, 50(1), 79–88.

Kim, Y. J., Cha, E. J., Kim, S. M., Kang, K. D., & Han, D. H. (2015). The Effects of Taekwondo Training on Brain Connectivity and Body Intelligence. Psychiatry Investigation, 12(3), 335.

Kim, Y., Todd, T., Fujii, T., Lim, J.-C., Vrongistinos, K., & Jung, T. (2016). Effects of Taekwondo intervention on balance in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 12(4), 314–319.

Lakes, K. D., Bryars, T., Sirisinahal, S., Salim, N., Arastoo, S., Emmerson, N., … Kang, C. J. (2013). The Healthy for Life Taekwondo pilot study: A preliminary evaluation of effects on executive function and BMI, feasibility, and acceptability. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 6(3), 181–188.

Ma, A. W. W., Fong, S. S. M., Guo, X., Liu, K. P. Y., Fong, D. Y. T., Bae, Y.-H., … Tsang, W. W. N. (2018). Adapted Taekwondo Training for Prepubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 10330.

Manzaneque, J. M., Vera, F. M., Carranque, G. A., Rodríguez-Peña, F. M., Navajas, F., & Blanca, M. J. (2018). Immunological Modulation in Long-Term Karate Practitioners. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018, 1–6.

Movahedi, A., Bahrami, F., Marandi, S. M., & Abedi, A. (2013). Improvement in social dysfunction of children with autism spectrum disorder following long term Kata techniques training. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(9), 1054–1061.

Palermo, M. T., & Forno, G. D. (2015). Behaviors and Karate- do : The Way of Crime Prevention A Pilot Study. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(6), 654–660.

Palermo, M. T., & Greydanus, D. E. (2011). Social cognition, executive dysfunction and neuro-behavioral karate: Alternative medicine or psychomotor treatment? International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, 4(3), 213–220.

Pons van Dijk, G., Huijts, M., & Lodder, J. (2013). Cognition Improvement in Taekwondo Novices Over 40. Results from the SEKWONDO Study. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 5(NOV), 1–5.

Rao, S. (2008). ‘Oos sensei! Oos sempai! ’: a karate school and lessons on inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 12(3), 281–299.

van Dijk, G. P., Lenssen, A. F., Leffers, P., Kingma, H., & Lodder, J. (2013). Taekwondo Training Improves Balance in Volunteers Over 40. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 5(MAR), 1–6.

Vera, F. M., Manzaneque, J. M., Carranque, G. A., Rodríguez-Peña, F. M., Sánchez-Montes, S., & Blanca, M. J. (2018). Endocrine Modulation in Long-Term Karate Practitioners. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018, 1–6.

Vertonghen, J., & Theeboom, M. (2010). The social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise among youth: A review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, Vol. 9, pp. 528–537.

Witte, K., Kropf, S., Darius, S., Emmermacher, P., & Böckelmann, I. (2016). Comparing the effectiveness of karate and fitness training on cognitive functioning in older adults—A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 5(4), 484–490.

Zivin, G., Hassan, N. R., DePaula, G. F., Monti, D. A., Harlan, C., Hossain, K., & Patterson, K. (2001). An effective approach to violence prevention: Traditional martial arts in middle school. Adolescence, 36(143), 443–459.