Karate & Taekwondo

Special Olympics
Team USA
World Karate Federation
World Taekwondo Federation


Bahrami, F., Movahedi, A., Marandi, S. M., & Sorensen, C. (2016). The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(3), 978–986. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2643-y

Carter, K., & Horvat, M. (2016). Effect of Taekwondo Training on Lower Body Strength and Balance in Young Adults with Down Syndrome. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 13(2), 165–172. https://doi.org/10.1111/jppi.12164

Chateau-Degat, M.-L. (2010). Effect of adapted karate training on quality of life and body balance in 50-year-old men. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 143. https://doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S12479

Conant, K. D., Morgan, A. K., Muzykewicz, D., Clark, D. C., & Thiele, E. A. (2008). A karate program for improving self-concept and quality of life in childhood epilepsy: Results of a pilot study. Epilepsy & Behavior, 12(1), 61–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2007.08.011

Douris, P. C., Elokda, A. S., Handrakis, J. P., Principal, S., Rondo, E., Bovell, J., … Zimmerman, T. (2009). Martial Art Training Enhances the Glutathione Antioxidant System in Middle-Aged Adults. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(5), 1518–1523. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b339ac

Douris, P. C., Ingenito, T., Piccirillo, B., Herbst, M., Petrizzo, J., Cherian, V., … Jung, M. K. (2013). Martial arts training attenuates arterial stiffness in middle aged adults. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(3), 201–207. https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.34259

Fong, S. S. M., Chung, J. W. Y., Chow, L. P. Y., Ma, A. W. W., & Tsang, W. W. N. (2013). Differential effect of Taekwondo training on knee muscle strength and reactive and static balance control in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(5), 1446–1455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.01.025

Fong, S. S. M., Liu, K. P. Y., Fong, D. Y. T., Yuen, L., & Guo, X. (2017). Adapted taekwondo training for skeletal development and motor proficiency in prepubertal children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 390, S31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33169-0

Fong, S. S. M., Tsang, W. W. N., & Ng, G. Y. F. (2012). Taekwondo training improves sensory organization and balance control in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(1), 85–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.08.023

Gubbels, J., van der Stouwe, T., Spruit, A., & Stams, G. J. J. M. (2016). Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles: A meta-analytic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 28, 73–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2016.03.011

Harwood, A., Lavidor, M., & Rassovsky, Y. (2017). Reducing aggression with martial arts: A meta-analysis of child and youth studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 34, 96–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.001

Jansen, P., & Dahmen-Zimmer, K. (2012). Effects of Cognitive, Motor, and Karate Training on Cognitive Functioning and Emotional Well-Being of Elderly People. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(FEB), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00040

Jansen, P., Dahmen-Zimmer, K., Kudielka, B. M., & Schulz, A. (2017). Effects of Karate Training Versus Mindfulness Training on Emotional Well-Being and Cognitive Performance in Later Life. Research on Aging, 39(10), 1118–1144. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027516669987

Jung, H. C., & Song, J. K. (2018). Decreased abdominal fat and improved bone metabolism after taekwondo training in obese adolescents. Kinesiology, 50(1), 79–88. https://doi.org/10.26582/k.50.1.2

Kim, Y. J., Cha, E. J., Kim, S. M., Kang, K. D., & Han, D. H. (2015). The Effects of Taekwondo Training on Brain Connectivity and Body Intelligence. Psychiatry Investigation, 12(3), 335. https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2015.12.3.335

Kim, Y., Todd, T., Fujii, T., Lim, J.-C., Vrongistinos, K., & Jung, T. (2016). Effects of Taekwondo intervention on balance in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 12(4), 314–319. https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.1632634.317

Lakes, K. D., Bryars, T., Sirisinahal, S., Salim, N., Arastoo, S., Emmerson, N., … Kang, C. J. (2013). The Healthy for Life Taekwondo pilot study: A preliminary evaluation of effects on executive function and BMI, feasibility, and acceptability. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 6(3), 181–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2013.07.002

Ma, A. W. W., Fong, S. S. M., Guo, X., Liu, K. P. Y., Fong, D. Y. T., Bae, Y.-H., … Tsang, W. W. N. (2018). Adapted Taekwondo Training for Prepubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 10330. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28738-7

Manzaneque, J. M., Vera, F. M., Carranque, G. A., Rodríguez-Peña, F. M., Navajas, F., & Blanca, M. J. (2018). Immunological Modulation in Long-Term Karate Practitioners. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1654148

Movahedi, A., Bahrami, F., Marandi, S. M., & Abedi, A. (2013). Improvement in social dysfunction of children with autism spectrum disorder following long term Kata techniques training. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(9), 1054–1061. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.04.012

Palermo, M. T., & Forno, G. D. (2015). Behaviors and Karate- do : The Way of Crime Prevention A Pilot Study. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(6), 654–660.

Palermo, M. T., & Greydanus, D. E. (2011). Social cognition, executive dysfunction and neuro-behavioral karate: Alternative medicine or psychomotor treatment? International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, 4(3), 213–220.

Pons van Dijk, G., Huijts, M., & Lodder, J. (2013). Cognition Improvement in Taekwondo Novices Over 40. Results from the SEKWONDO Study. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 5(NOV), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2013.00074

Rao, S. (2008). ‘Oos sensei! Oos sempai! ’: a karate school and lessons on inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 12(3), 281–299. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110601103238

van Dijk, G. P., Lenssen, A. F., Leffers, P., Kingma, H., & Lodder, J. (2013). Taekwondo Training Improves Balance in Volunteers Over 40. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 5(MAR), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2013.00010

Vera, F. M., Manzaneque, J. M., Carranque, G. A., Rodríguez-Peña, F. M., Sánchez-Montes, S., & Blanca, M. J. (2018). Endocrine Modulation in Long-Term Karate Practitioners. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1074801

Vertonghen, J., & Theeboom, M. (2010). The social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise among youth: A review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, Vol. 9, pp. 528–537.

Witte, K., Kropf, S., Darius, S., Emmermacher, P., & Böckelmann, I. (2016). Comparing the effectiveness of karate and fitness training on cognitive functioning in older adults—A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 5(4), 484–490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.006

Zivin, G., Hassan, N. R., DePaula, G. F., Monti, D. A., Harlan, C., Hossain, K., & Patterson, K. (2001). An effective approach to violence prevention: Traditional martial arts in middle school. Adolescence, 36(143), 443–459.